Patient Blood Management (PBM) is a multidisciplinary clinical approach to target anemia and inadequate hemotherapy. Anemia has been identified as an independent risk factor for higher morbidity and mortality in several patient groups such as high-surgical-risk patients, critically ill elderly, and cardiac patients. Red blood cell transfusion is the most commonly prescribed therapy for anemia, with high user-variability. Despite being life-saving in many settings, it carries a risk that ranges from mild complications to death. PBM targets preoperative anemia, perioperative blood loss and thereby modifies risk factors for red blood cell transfusion on an individual patient level. The continuous assessment and optimization of the coagulation status is one further module of PBM next to many others.